Sewage in a private house: step-by-step manual of the device of a cesspool with their hands.

Most suburban areas are not equipped with a centralized Sewerage system and so, to collect waste water gardeners use to build the sump. There is another solution to this problem is to use a special mini-stations, but they have a high cost. That is why the arrangement of a suburban area pit latrine is the most convenient and effective option.

How to make a cesspool with their hands?

  1. Choose a place for the sump

Место для выгребной ямы

A place for the sump

This issue must be treated very seriously. There are special regulations and the established sanitary standards, which selects the location to the sump. The requirements for the location of this device is the following:

  • Distance from the sump to the dwelling must be at least 12 meters.
  • Distance from the sump up to the fence must be at least 1 meter
  • It is forbidden to build a drainage ditch near wells and wells with drinking water, the minimum distance should be 5 meters
  • It is not recommended to construct a pit near the garden trees
  • The location of the sump should be convenient to the entrance of the machine-scavengers
  1. Calculates the size of the sump

Размер выгребной ямы

The size of the sump

First of all, the size of the sump depends on the number of tenants and the structure of the soil. On average, the monthly runoff of the family of 3-4 man is 12-13 cubic meters, so, septic tank should have a volume of at least 18-20 cubic meters.

If the soil in your summer cottage quietly flows the liquid, allowed to make a minimum stock volume of the sump (40% monthly runoff water).

If the soil of the suburban area is represented by the clay or other breed, which loosely pass water, the volume of the sump should be the monthly rate of flow.

  1. The device of a cesspool

Устройство выгребной ямы

The device of a cesspool

To spread the walls of the sump it is recommended that brick, plastic, concrete or reinforced concrete rings. The simplest option is to finish the walls sewer pit brick.

In order, that would put the walls of the pit using brick, first, you need to calculate the amount of materials. Then concreted the bottom (that would eliminate the problem, associated with pumping fluid) and stacked brick. If laying bricks to produce a staggered, you can "kill two birds with one stone": save money on materials and make additional water drainage in the soil.

Выгребная яма из кирпича, выложенного в шахматном порядке

Cesspool of brick, laid out in a checkerboard pattern

Upon completion of the operation an overlap or a monolithic slab. In the prescribed overlap have to be the hatch for pumping sewage machine-scavengers.

Выгребная яма из кирпича

Cesspool of brick

You can eliminate the freezing of the liquid in the pit with insulation cover, for this purpose the top wall doing below ground level on 30 cm, set the ceiling and covered it with earth, which will provide heat retention.

Consider also other types of drain holes.

Cesspool of the rings

Выгребная яма из колец

Cesspool of the rings

The construction of pit latrines with concrete rings is very popular and has many advantages, such as:

  • Durability (the service life of the rings comes to 100 years)
  • Concrete can withstand the processes of decay and fermentation, taking place in a cesspool
  • Ease of use and installation
  • Does not contaminate ground water
  • The independence of groundwater level and soil type

Go to the instructions for creating the cesspool of the rings:

  1. Tearing a hole, matching the diameter precast concrete rings
Яма для канализации своими руками

Pit for Sewerage with their hands

  1. Fill the bottom of the pit with a concrete solution. The ratio of cement and crushed stone shall be 1:6. The solution sets for 5-7 days. If bottom pouring is carried out in hot weather, concrete should be periodically moistened with water, to avoid cracking and give the solution even more strength.
  2. As soon as the concrete hardens, start lowering the rings. Many manufacturers of concrete products provide for a fee a crane, without which can not do. With the help of a crane lowered the rings on the bottom and proceed to the isolation joints. Seams must be isolated hermetic material, like liquid glass, rubber insulation or even Bicycle camera. It is best to choose liquid glass, you want to add in cement mortar, carefully mix and apply to the joints between the rings. Insulation seams on the inner side is usually enough, but if the area has a high groundwater level, it is necessary to conduct and external insulation, which further protects the cesspool from moisture.
Установка бетонных колец для выгребной ямы

Installation of concrete rings for latrines

It is recommended to choose the ring, having a "castle", which securely interlock them with each other. If you use the normal ring, have to fasten them with metal brackets.

Rings installed on top of concrete slab, having the hole for the hatch.

Do the cesspool of plastic

Пластиковый бак для выгребной ямы

Plastic tank for the sump

Septic tank, plastic is one of the easiest and convenient ways of creating a sewage system in the suburban area. Brief instructions for installation of pit latrines, plastic,:

  • The designated place for the pit latrines
  • Preparing the pit
  • Create a concrete pad (plate)
  • Fill concrete pad 10-santimetrovy layer of sand
  • Drop a plastic container into the pit
  • Connect waste pipes to the tank
  • Fill the hole around the perimeter of the concrete-sand mixture (the ratio 1:5)
  • Fill the top layer of soil

Requirements for the installation of plastic tank to the sump:

Выгребная яма из пластика

Septic tank, plastic

  1. Place capacity therefore, that would eliminate the twists and turns of sewers
  2. If the requirement of the 1st paragraph is not possible, the twists and turns of the pipes should be at an obtuse angle
  3. Place pipe to depth 1-1,5 meter, that would not prevent their freezing in winter
  4. If on the dacha observed shallow groundwater table, it may be a problem – the bottom of the tank is below the groundwater level. To solve this problem, mount the tank in a concrete pit.
Готовая конструкция выгребной ямы из пластика

Ready design pit latrines, plastic,

The septic tank for the latrines with their hands

Септик для выгребной ямы своими руками

The septic tank for the latrines with their hands

In order, that would create the septic tank to the cesspool with their hands, it is necessary to construct an additional pit, the depth of a little more than the first. In the pit down the concrete ring on the concrete bottom. In the upper rings you need to drill a hole for pipes, who will pour water from one pit to another.

Схема септика для выгребной ямы

Diagram of a septic tank for the sump

The depth of the pipe depends on the degree of freezing of the soil and dimensions of the pit (if your region is famous for severe frosts, the depth of the pipes should be not less than 80 cm).

In order, what would a septic tank function, you must apply special biologics, that process drains. Purified water from the septic tank overflows into the main hole which seeps into the ground naturally.

The last step is installation of the drain pipe. The slope of the pipes should be 15 degrees, diameter 15 cm, because. these parameters ensure normal patency of drains.

Backfill the trench with the pipes is necessary after the control of water draining into the sewer, that would make sure, that the drain is working properly.

We also recommend you to read the article: toilet for cottages their hands.

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