The essence of Foundation columnar type
The Foundation of the columnar type is built from different construction materials, which we will discuss later. The purpose of the pier Foundation is to take loads from design light garden buildings and distribution of these loads to the soil.
Among garden buildings, which is recommended to build on the pier Foundation, allocate:
- Gazebo (you can even barbecue)
- Garden house
- Summer kitchen
- Outdoor shower (stationary)
In addition, you can even erect one-story frame house.
Not allowed to build a pier Foundation under high-rise building or a residential building, made from heavy –duty materials brick, cinder block, concrete etc.
The advantages of the pier Foundation are the following:
- The ease of construction of the Foundation (it is possible to build yourself without special skills construction, knowing only the basics)
- No need in special equipment and expertise
- Suitable for any soil (except puchase and with a high location of groundwater)
- The possibility to build even on sites, located on a hilly area and the slopes
- Does not require complex preparatory work of the landscape
- Saving of material resources: the construction of the pier Foundation is the most cheap (its construction is economical 2 times)
- High speed building – time from the training area before the pour of the columns is no more than two weeks
- Minimum waterproofing of columns
- Good enough structural strength
- Durability (with proper construction in compliance with all recommendations of the Foundation can withstand more than 50 years)
It's not all the benefits of pier Foundation, they are actually low in 2 times more, but the article is not about that.
The disadvantages of pier Foundation are:
- Inability to withstand substantial loads
- The exception of creating a basement under the building
As you can see, the disadvantages are practically insignificant and will not affect the lightweight construction, which is the Foundation.
What to do a pier Foundation with his own hands?
Another nice plus – pier Foundation has a few different variations of building materials, of which it is possible to build.
Today, the pier Foundation is recommended from the following materials, we consider a:
Asbestos pipes. This material is very convenient and easy to build, the more that do not demand high costs. Below we will consider the option of constructing the pier Foundation of asbestos pipes with your hands.
Brick. Is a popular option for pier Foundation. But it should be noted, this material has rather more disadvantages, than benefits. The advantage of brick in durability and high strength. The disadvantage is the complexity of the brick work in pit, the high cost of the material and the exposure distortion due to heaving of soils (because. the design is not monolithic).
Tree. Pier Foundation made of wooden bars is the cheapest and most economical option, which is suitable for the construction of lightweight structures (for example, gazebos). Another advantage of wood is the ease of installation, but this material has significant disadvantages. These include little lifetime Foundation (if only logs to process not a good antiseptic and thoroughly insulated from the effects of water), as well as a complex system of waterproofing, without which can not do.
Concrete Foundation. It is also a good option for pier Foundation, the construction of which will be discussed below. The advantage of a concrete pier Foundation is good strength, durability and a good ratio of price-quality. The disadvantage of this Foundation is the difficulty in the construction of removable formwork for columns.
On the basis of the above materials for pier Foundation, you should pay attention to, the base can be monolithic, and precast.
Of course, preference should be given to monolithic Foundation, because. its structure necessarily includes fittings, allowing to withstand not only the tensile, but bending.
If you choose a prefabricated pier Foundation, which consists of bricks, it should be understood, during frosts, the soil is repeatedly razberatsya/freezing, the result will be the process of pushing columns to the surface. These deformations contribute to the weakening of the seams of the bricks, which will lead to, that the brick columns will crack and the structure will be subjected to bias, and this is a very big problem, because. the Foundation repair is not only very complex, but also financially costly.
That is why we recommend to build a monolithic pier Foundation, but before that, be sure to do the calculation of the Foundation, which we now discuss.
Calculation columnar Foundation
Unlike fellow pier Foundation – tape and pile Foundation, which absolutely require the help of experts in calculating, this type of Foundation can be calculated independently. For this it is necessary to be guided by basic factors, that affect the strength and design of the Foundation, namely:
Type of soil. On the basis of, what kind of soil prevails in your summer cottage, you need to choose the design of columns. If the soil has a high groundwater, it is necessary to take additional measures, which already, be sure to involve experts. If high groundwater is not observed and the soil is not pochama, pier Foundation you can safely build.
The depth of soil freezing. This factor depends on many things. The posts must be sunk below the depth of freezing, otherwise in winter they will be greatly subjected to deformations. The depth of freezing of soil in our region is about 1 meter, therefore, the posts must be sunk in 1,2, and 1,5 meter.
Type of Foundation and the weight of the structure. It is also an important factor, defines the step between the posts, as well as their depth. For normal conditions it is customary to set the bars at a distance 2 meters from each other. It should be also noted, the installation of the columns is made on the most important nodes in the construction: the outer corners, the intersection of and abutting the interior walls, under the stove (if they have) etc. The installation depth of the columns the same for each individual plot, but decided to choose a depth of 1,5 to 2 meters (do not forget, what size is suitable for lightweight construction).
Pier Foundation with his own hands: user build
The most popular types of pier Foundation are the pile Foundation of asbestos pipes and reinforced concrete, now we consider.
Preparatory work for both types are the same. First create a drawing diagram of the Foundation, which specify all of the exact dimensions between the columns, as well as the shape of the entire area of the Foundation. Further inciting the estimate of construction materials and acquired all the necessary.
After that, proceed to the preparation area. First, using pegs and string mark out the territory, which will created a pier Foundation with his own hands.
Then remove the entire area of sod to a depth of 30 cm. This should be done in order, that would be in the future to create a drainage layer of sand and gravel, and also to protect the place under the future construction (where will be a small void between the floor and the ground) from the germination of plants.
As you know, then with a hand drill pulls the required number of holes for columns. It should be noted, the cross section of the shafts should not exceed 10-15 cm cross-section bars, because. will need a place for waterproofing, bricklaying and other technological measures.
Once the pits are prepared, then create the columns.
Create bar Foundation of asbestos pipes
After, as all preparatory work will be done, go to the main process.
The first step is creating at the bottom of the pits podsypku of sand and gravel, which carefully stamped. Next, take the asbestos pipes with a diameter of not less than 20 cm and mounted on the bottom of the hole. Inside of pipes must be placed 2-3 rod of rebar, which should be tightly pressed to the soil (which they entered on 15 cm down). The diameter of the rods should be 12-14 cm, and the reinforcement shall be ribbed, that would have carried a good clutch of armature with concrete solution. Forgot to say, the valve rods are kindly requested to bind on the surface of the wire through each 50 cm. The length of the rods should be as follows 20 cm + the depth of the pit + 20 cm. Last 20 cm is necessary in order, what would the vertical rods to communicate with horizontal, which will be laid on the horizontal component of the Foundation. After that, inside the pipes and around them shall be filled with the concrete solution and until it is grabbed, construction level to check the evenness of the Foundation and, if necessary, to adjust its.
Here bars and ready, they may not be touched until fully cured. At this time you can bring to the construction of various communications, and when the mortar hardens, to create a horizontal component of Foundation – raft Foundation, which is created from precast concrete blocks or monolithic structure with rebar and mortar, which contribute removable wooden formwork.
The creation of a monolithic pier Foundation with his own hands
The creation of a monolithic pier Foundation with his own hands is not much different from the above method. All you need, it is in the pits to establish the vertical removable casing, to inflate them between the walls of the pit and go to create the actual bars. For this is a concrete solution (cement grade M200 and above). Be sure to create a reinforcing piping inside the casing, as in the previous case and pour a concrete solution. Don't forget, the reinforcement rods must necessarily come to the surface at least 20 cm.
As soon as the grab bars, bring down the formwork and move to the waterproofing of supports. In this case, it is recommended to use roofing felt, which obvolakivaet columns in 2-3 times. After that go to create the second component of the columnar Foundation grillage. Install formwork, it bandages the horizontal bars of the vertical rebar and pour concrete solution. Leave the raft until fully cured, then we create the de waterproofing roofing material and laid on top of the raft slab. Here, actually the whole process of creating a columnar monolithic Foundation with his own hands.
Please note that, the solution needs to be kneaded in the mixer, to get a smooth consistency.
Also be sure to equip the Foundation zabirkoj, which will protect him from falling under the construction of snow and wind gusts. Zabirko made from brick or rubble stone.
As for formwork, it is made of planed boards, thickness not less than 3 cm (better 5).