Brick: brief information about the material
Brick is made from clay. Depending on the type of clay and method of production there are several varieties of brick (ceramic, silicate and refractory), which in turn are also divided into subgroups. The most extensive classification of brick in the construction business and landscaping of the site consists of 2 types: building brick and facing brick.
Construction brick is used for masonry walls and piers. It, as a rule, cheaper and Standards to it is not such demanding. The surface of the building bricks can be chipped, rough, spotted from the ledges of salt and different color change. After, how is masonry construction brick, additional, you need to coat it, plaster and paint to taste.
To the facing brick to the requirements of GOST for higher: the material must be homogeneous, no noticeable change of color, without chipping, cracks and irregularities. Facing brick can be shaped, from what is repelled and its shape is a bit rounded, corner, irregular shape etc.
The brick, regardless of the type of clay and destiny can be full-bodied, effective and efficient, we also talk.
There is a special form of brick with chamfer, when the corners of the material do beveled. This innovation not only improves the appearance of brick, but also contributes to less damage during transportation.
Special attention in the choice of brick is paid to its physical properties: strength, frost, moisture absorption. About it we will talk below.
Also should pay attention one of the most important components of the appearance of the brickwork and the structural strength is in the seams, because. too large/small sizes of seams not only ruin the "face" design, but will make it less stable.
Now we will examine in detail all the principal brick, and their characteristics, dimensions and foundations of masonry.
Classification of bricks
According to the type of clay
As discussed earlier, brick can be a silicate, refractory and ceramic. Let's look at the benefits of each of the kinds of bricks in landscaping.
Just ceramic brick and is divided into ordinary (construction) and facial (facing). Ceramic bricks made from red clay, which lend themselves to roasting in a special oven at a temperature of about 1000 degrees.
In landscape design of the site the ceramic brick is made use of for anything. Of course, what soldier bricks, not having decorative appearance, used for masonry walls of all houses and garden buildings. As for facing ceramic brick, it can be used to create arches, fences, gazebos, retaining walls and other elements of garden decor.
Facing ceramic bricks can have on the front side of the decorative pattern in the form of a spring, birch trees or other natural landscape – this is called brick facade.
Also facing brick may have an unusual shape: rounded, U-shaped, corner etc. in this case, the brick shaped.
The most popular in landscape design is considered as the fireplace ceramic brick – this material has a contoured shape, which helps to create the unusual appearance of the stove-barbecue, the fireplace and other devices.
Fire brick, even on the basis of names, has the advantage compared to the other bricks in that, that is able to withstand critical for other materials the temperature.
This creates a kind of brick made of refractory clay, the process is quite complex and takes place under the action of the furnace temperature is about 1300 degrees.
In landscape design and construction business, fire brick is used for uploading the internal walls of the furnace-a barbecue, stoves, fireplace.
Another advantage of refractory bricks – high thermal conductivity and high resistance to abrupt temperature changes, that is why it is so important in creating the heating of buildings.
Silicate brick is made of lime, which gives the material higher strength. In landscape design the sand-lime brick is used to create the walls of houses and other garden buildings, because. material attached buildings white color, which creates aesthetically attractive gardening area.
It is not recommended to build from a silicate brick Foundation of the buildings, chimney and heating installations, because. this material has a low resistance to high temperatures and moisture.
By construction, brick
Title solid brick speaks for itself – this material is extremely technological holes and is composed entirely of clay (more than 87%). The advantage of brick is that, he has the highest strength and bearing capacity, that is why it is put up walls of high-rise buildings. Benefits holes themselves are, that material increases thermal insulation and frost resistance, and also reduces the total load on the Foundation built.
From hollow brick percentage of the holes may vary from 13 and to 43% of the total brick.
Holes hollow brick can have a different geometric shape (square, round) and varying degrees of penetration into the material (non-through and through).
As discussed earlier, void is good because, that enhance thermal performance of buildings, but hollow bricks emptiness play another very important function: save the expense of clay and contribute to the simplification of the technological process.
Another advantage of hollow brick – light weight, whereby with the same size of bricks, the wall weight will be less, and hence the impact on the Foundation will be reduced.
Borisovny brick has the same percentage of the holes as hollow brick. It has the advantage of higher thermal protection design, which is due to the fact, the design of the brick has a small closed porous Taurus.
Create pores thus: during kneading clay, to the mixture is added a certain number of balls of polystyrene or wood sawdust, are in the process of roasting the material to burn and create closed voids.
In addition to high thermal performance, porous bricks have the following significant advantage of the product is significantly lighter than other brick and has on order a large size (about 10 normal bricks one block).
As to the advantage of porous bricks include significant savings of raw materials and the fact, the wall of this brick will have less cement joints, which reduce the thermal protection of buildings.
Physical properties of bricks
The strength of the brick directly affects the stability and durability of the structure. Strength is determined on the basis of marking bricks, which is set by the manufacturer using experimental methods, material strength in compression (how many kg can withstand 1 cm2 material).
To mark the bricks are made as follows letter "M" and standing after the number it shows, what kind of load can withstand material: M100, M125, M200, M300 etc.
Recommendations on the choice of the strength characteristics of the bricks the following:
- For masonry walls one- and two-story buildings are allowed to use brick M100
- For masonry walls of high-rise buildings use brick, strength not lower than M200 (better than the M300)
- The Foundation should be laid with brick M150 and above
It should also be noted, the higher the strength of the brick, the less damage will be inflicted during transportation.
Frost resistance and water absorption
The hardiness determines, how many cycles of sharp temperature drop in winter season can sustain material. Frost, like other physical properties of bricks, determines the durability of the material, and thus the whole structure.
Manufacturers of brick experimental method find the rate of frost resistance of the material: saturated bricks freeze and defrost until, until it starts to lose its strength properties. Mark the brick on frost resistance in the following way: put letter "F" and next to it the number, showing, how many cycles is able to withstand the bricks and the higher the number, the better its resistance to frost, and hence the durability.
The water absorption of brick is one of the most important physical properties of the material, which correlated with the frost resistance – the lower the moisture absorption, the higher the frost resistance.
Established the following rules GOST to moisture absorption of the material:
- Sand-lime brick (or other material, to which is added lime) up to 20%
- Brick belozhguschihsya clay – to 6%
It should be noted, what's the hardiness for building bricks shall be 15 cycles, and for facing from 25 and above. Frost quality imported brick may reach "50", that is a very high number.
The principal dimensions of brick
In landscape design and construction all brick sizes are standardized.
To date, there are following sizes of the bricks:
Brick is single, single and double.
The size of ceramic bricks the following:
- Single: 250 mm * 120 mm * 65 mm
- Single: 250 mm * 120 mm * 88 mm
- Double: 250 mm * 120 mm * 138 mm
Sizes of refractory bricks are different from the sizes of ceramic bricks. Before giving you the size of the material, be sure to mention, what fire brick can be straight and wedge-shaped.
Direct brick has a conventional parallelepiped shape and is used for internal masonry stoves.
With the help of wedge-shaped bricks, which has a different radius of curvature, it is customary to impose arched. Wedge-shaped brick can be Rebrovo and end (depending on, which side of the curve).
So, sizes of refractory bricks the following:
- Sh-5 230 mm x 114 mm x 65 mm
- Sh-8 250 mm x 124 mm x 65 mm
- W-9 300 mm x 150 mm x 65 mm
For wedge-shaped bricks
- End Of Sh-22 230 mm x 114 mm x 65/55 mm
- End W-23 230 mm x 114 mm x 65/45 mm
- Rebrovo Sh-44 230 mm x 114 mm x 65/55 mm
- Rebrovo Sh-45 230 mm x 114 mm x 65/45 mm
The dimensions of silica bricks are the same, as the size of ceramic brick.
It should be noted, that abroad a brick may have the most diverse sizes and is considered, the unique brick dimensions, in the unique building itself.
Country houses of brick
As we said earlier, brick is a very good material for landscape design area. Although today such competitors as the foam block and the concrete begin to replace the brick out of the market, anyway, in the near future the loss of leadership threatens him.
The question "what can we build of bricks in the country? "don't make sense, because. the answer is "anything". The most successful variant was built of brick in the country is:
- Summer kitchen
- The fence
- The contours flower beds
- Retaining wall
- Outdoor shower
- The column for the zone-barbecue, canopy, dog cage etc.
It all, I would like to tell you about the brick, as the material of choice for landscape design.
We also recommend you to read the article: how to make oven barbecue brick their hands!