- Species and varieties
- Planting material: growing
- The grafted material
- Own-rooted material
- Site preparation
- Planting cherries
- Planting dates
- Planting technique
- Pruning: tips gardeners
- Autumn work
- Diseases and pests
- Photo of different varieties of cherries
- Video about growing cherries
The first sweet cherry variety was introduced to Europe from Persia, and sour – from Asia Minor. The cultivation of culture were doing in Ancient Greece. In Germany in the nineteenth century when the new year brought into the house not the tree, and cherries in the tub.
Cherry gardens – a beautiful decoration of the site.
Cherry – popular culture, the above-ground part of which consists of multiple or single trunk. On tree and shrub types of plants are not divided on this basis, and depending on the type of fruiting. First fruit fruit branches, second – year branches. Popular among gardeners felt cherry.
Flower buds of the cherry simple, after shedding the fruit of the branches become bare. The nature of the fruiting shrub cherries depends on last year's growth of branches, weak growth may be a result of improper farming practices. On short increments and group growth buds are not included, that leads to lower yields.
The main part of the harvest of cherry tree is in fruit branches, depending on the quality of care their life expectancy ranges from two to seven years. These species are less prone to exposure.
During the life of the cherry goes through three major periods: development and growth, active fruiting, drying. To extend the second, the main period, needs the right care, the optimum length of growth – from 30 to 40 cm. Root system of cherry consists of skeletal roots, located at the periphery of the crown at a depth of 20 to 40 cm. With this in mind, tillage and fertilizer.
Species and varieties
The most famous shrub varieties:
- "Labska", old variety with high yield, the fruits are red;
- "Vladimir", height – to 3,5 meters, high yield, fruit dessert, dark red;
- Turgenevka – variety with late flowering periods, the fruits are large, with a sweet and sour taste, samoplodnye;
- "Griot Moscow", cherry high, the fruits are round, high yield;
- "Zhukovskaya" – late flowering period, sweet and sour large fruit.
Early maturing and winter-hardy:
- "Asha the ordinary";
Varieties, do not require cross-pollination:
- "Dessert Volga";
Planting material: growing
The grafted material
For reproduction grafting method first grown rootstock, and then he grafted cultivar. For frequently used rootstock seedlings, obtained from the kernels of cherries.
Seeds harvested from cultivars. Bone should be Mature, selected from healthy fruit. Fresh seeds immediately placed in a moist medium of sand, moss or sawdust for hardening, or stored without the substrate in plastic bags before the autumn sowing.
For the emergence of the ability to germinate seeds must undergo a period of rest, to create certain conditions. You can create them in the open ground, if you plant seeds in autumn the soil, time is from August to October. Natural conditions can be different and not always favorable, more reliable spring sowing after stratification. Before, how to put seeds in the ground or lay on the ripening, they are soaked for five to seven days, change the water daily.
To stratify the seeds are mixed with sawdust, well washed river sand or sphagnum moss. Bone can be damaged by mold, to rot, to avoid this, they are placed for a few seconds in a solution of potassium permanganate based 25 mg per liter of water. Before cracking, the material is stored at a temperature of from 15 to 20 degrees for two months, then it is transferred into the basement or put in the fridge, temperature: from two to six degrees. When a third seed hatch – they pour on the ice or in the snow for hardening. The entire period of stratification takes 150 to 180 days. The substrate must be several times to moisten and mix.
Varietal planting material can be grown from seedlings and root cuttings from healthy trees, which are high yield. Shoots are dug in September or October or in the spring before Bud break. Planting material is taken at the peripheral part of the crown. From the trunks back down on 20 cm, the root cord is severed with a stock, with two sides, its length – to 30 cm. If the development is weak – you can spend home rearing the offspring on the loose, fertilized the garden with regular waterings.
Root cuttings taken in early spring or late fall. The top roots bare and cut into pieces to 15 cm in length, thickness, from half an inch to one and a half centimeters. Stored material in the basement at zero temperature, substrate – wet sand. Root cuttings are planted on prepared beds in early spring. The distance between cuttings is to 10 cm, positioning the inclined: the top end should be covered with soil one to two inches, the bottom – three to five. The beds are well watered and mulched. This planting material can be used for rootstock.
Plot for planting dug and fertilized: from 40 to 60 g superphosphate, 20 – 30 g of potassium salt, 10 – 15 kg of humus. If the soil is acidic – 100 g lime. All calculations are given for one square meter. In the absence of mineral fertilizers, the humus can be mixed with ash. On the soil surface make grooves in three to five centimeters deep, the distance between them – to 30 cm.
Sprouted seeds are separated from the substrate, spread in the grooves using five centimeters, dropwise. Immediately spend watering and mulching.
If in his first season manages to get a thick seedlings, the next spring they were thinned. The vaccination process is most effective in the period of SAP flow: in the spring or summer.
In the spring, plant the cuttings wrasse: in the side cut and the bark. On the handle there should be two or three buds. Cuttings are cut in early winter before the frost, they are stored at zero temperature in the refrigerator, in the basement or in snow piles.
Vaccinated eye (budding) carried out in July or August. Greater assurance of survival gives budding two eyes.
The culture grows well on elevated and well-lit areas. In Central and Northern conditions are better areas near buildings, fences. Warm and mild climate contributes to the normal development, a thick layer of snow protects from freezing. Depth to groundwater shall not be closer than half to two meters from the surface. The reaction of the soil solution is neutral or close to that.
Soil can be improved, if you dig it on the bayonet shovels along with fertilizers and lime. Norms of organic fertilizers, such as manure, composts: 10 – 15 kg per square meter. The percentage of lime depends on soil acidity, submitting it separately from mineral fertilizers. In the rich black soil make five or six pounds of organics, at 25 g of phosphorus and 10 – 15 g potassium.
Acidic peat, moist soil unsuitable for growing cherries. It is possible to try drain such a site and improve it by adding conventional, fertile soil, manure, lime, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. In the planting hole make a Mature compost, humus, potassium sulfate or ash.
For planting in a permanent place of growth requires a well-developed, healthy seedlings, with three or four branches of skeletal roots. If the material is transported, while its roots must be protected from drying out. When planting in the autumn wisp ends trimmed, the dried seedlings immersed in water for 6 – 10 hours.
Seedlings for spring planting in winter was added dropwise. To do this, dig trenches to a depth of 35 cm, direction – from West to East. The wall on the South side of the trench doing incline, an angle 45 degrees, seedlings placed the canopy on the South. Planting material is poured, the soil is well pressed against the trunks and roots, there should not be voids, which penetrates the cold air. Insufficiently moist soil watered.
In areas with favorable fall and winter it gives good results autumn planting. With the early onset of cold and snowy winters, the plants can freeze. Autumn planting works out 30 days before the freezing of the soil. Seedlings grow best in early spring, once thawed and dry soil.
Dimensions of the landing pit: width – 80 cm, depth – 60 cm. When digging the upper soil layer is transferred into one pile, lower the other. In the hole, put a peg, around it is poured a mound of the upper layer, mixed with mineral fertilizers and humus. Removed the bottom layer scatter on the aisle. The root collar should be at ground level, around the plant, make the hole, fill the cushion out of the ground. Planting well-watered, you will need two buckets of water on a Bush. After watering the surface mulch humus, peat or soil. A sapling tied to the stake, eight, below the barrel is formed padding.
The recommended distance between trees is two to three meters, between rows is three meters.
Pruning: tips gardeners
Like other similar culture, cherry is subject to all three types of cropping: anti-aging, forming, sanitary. The latter is carried out before Bud break or in the fall, remove diseased and broken branches, thin out the crown.
The formation of the right of the crown in early spring seedling rid of the side branches at the height of 60 – 80 cm. Forming four or five well-developed, skeletal branches. In the second year, cut the center conductor and limit the growth of tree in height. In forming the Bush leave 10 – 12 the main shoot, the rest is removed. In the next five to eight years, and during the attenuation of growth carry out rejuvenating pruning.
In autumn, tree trunks circles cherry dug, make humus and phosphate fertilizers. In October, the main and skeletal branches cleaned of lichen and bark Ammersee. Damage, wounds on the tree washed with a solution of iron or copper sulfate, obscure pitch. The resulting hollow slapped cement.
For wintering in autumn, the trees Spud, as soon trample down the snow in tree trunks and cut fresh cuttings for spring vaccinations.
Diseases and pests
Warned is, armed. For the prevention of diseases and pests in cherry orchard, observe the following rules:
- time to clean up fallen leaves and the remains of the mulch, if she didn't have time to humus, that, and the other is a great substrate for bacteria and fungi;
- the lower boughs and trunks should be regularly podpilivat, not only will this prevent the crust from disease, but will leave it clean from fouling by moss;
- the saw cuts treated with antiseptic drugs, paint over with pitch or oil paint;
- in winter, the trunk is isolated from rodents.
Measures to combat the kokkomikoza or perforated spots are the cherry spraying biological and chemical agents, sold in specialty stores. In the fall, after harvesting the fruits, cherries sprayed with liquid Bordeaux, and the soil was treated with copper sulfate.