Installation of pile Foundation
Before we consider the application conditions, the advantage and disadvantages of raft Foundation, I would like to talk about, what is this type of Foundation and what it consists of.
Pile Foundation is mostly concrete structure, employee in order to withstand the weight of the building, which is built on it, and in order, that would give you create soil load.
Pile Foundation consists of piles and caps.
Piles elements of design of pile Foundation, which are long columns, penetrating the soil up to a certain point and transmitting all loads on the soil. Piles can be wood, metal, concrete and reinforced concrete. The cross-sectional shape of round, square, pyramid. There are hollow and solid piles. According to the method of occurrence in the earth piles are divided into supporting and hanging. Now consider each kind and type of piles.
The wood pile are the most cheap and short-lived option. Manufactured mainly from larch, ate, fir and pine. Used very rarely and then for lightweight structures. That would extend the life of wood piles using various antiseptic, protects against damage of the wood with fungus and other diseases.
The pile of metal often used in the creation of pile Foundation with his own hands. The advantage of the metal piles is speed of installation of the Foundation, independence from the time of year of construction and average durability. Drawback – the high price of material and the need for treatment anti-corrosion agents.
Concrete and reinforced concrete piles are also a popular option. They have the advantage of a good ratio price-quality. Can be manufactured in the factory, and on-site construction (pouring manually). The durability of reinforced concrete piles exceeds 1 century. To create this type of piles with their hands, it is recommended to use a cement M400.
Hollow piles represent pipe, which are first installed in soil, and then optionally filled with concrete solution. This type of piles is considered very good, because. when you create a light design to save the cost of material, and when building heavy structures to facilitate the installation of piles into the soil, because. the solution will be poured after complete installation.
Solid piles are a standard option, which makes no sense to stay.
Retaining piles different from hanging the, that at the end, which originally goes in the ground, they have "leg" of greater cross-section, transferring all the load to the soil. This device allows you to withstand more weight (to 9 t to the column).
Hanging piles bars represent the constant cross-section. The load transfer from the piles to the soil by means of friction forces between soil and column. Piles as if "crash" in the soil at a certain depth.
The length of the piles may be different and depends on the type of construction (high-rise building, hozblok, residential house, gazebo, summer kitchen). Basically, the minimum length of the piles is 3 meter, and the maximum, according to some sources, can reach up to 20 meters (but I personally have not met so long).
Step of installation of piles also depends on the design and type of soil, distance ranges from 1,5 to 2,5 meters.
The diameter of the piles also depends on the type of construction. Mainly used piles from 20 cm in diameter.
According to the method of installation of piles in the soil secrete:
Driven piles – installation of piles into the soil with special equipment, which puts the bars vibrating forces or impaction.
Printed piles – first well is drilled, it fits rebar and poured concrete.
Drilling reinforced concrete piles – the finished product, cranes installed in a prepared pit.
Screw piles – most easy to installation, represent metallic bars with threads (like screws or drill bits), which is screwed into the soil either manually, or using special equipment.
With regard to piles, it seems to be all that can be said. You should also note, what to create with their hands is recommended to use a drilling reinforced concrete piles or helical. Also be sure to make a pile support in the soil, to ensure sufficient stability of the construction.
Now come to the second element of the pile Foundation – the gratings. The gratings are horizontal, a concrete or metal structure, which binds everything into one pile and serve as the receiver of all loads for a uniform distribution on all the piles.
Classification of foundations a more modest. There are monolithic, prefabricated and precast-monolithic grillage.
Monolithic grillage are made immediately on-site construction pile Foundation with formwork, reinforcing dressings and liquid concrete and mortar.
Prefabricated and precast-monolithic grillage represent the factory of concrete blocks, which are installed at the construction site. Their advantage is the reduction in time to create a pile Foundation with his own hands. The disadvantage is the need for special technique (crane), higher material costs and lower strength of the Foundation.
The gratings can be high and low.
High the gratings are located at low altitude from the earth's surface and transmit all the load exclusively on piles.
Low gratings a better option, because. they are created on the basis of. Removed a small layer of soil (to 30 cm), creates a drainage layer, formwork and concrete is poured a solution. Thus, low grillage transmit part of the loads to the ground, reducing the load on the pile and thereby providing a margin of safety of the entire Foundation. Low grillage represent the pile-strip Foundation, which we'll talk later.
Where to use pile Foundation?
The conditions of application of pile Foundation, the following:
- Water-saturated soils with a high groundwater level
- Pocasie soil
- Loose marsh soil
- "Floating" the soil
- Soil weak sustainability
In other words we can say, that pile Foundation is suitable for soils with difficult mining and geological conditions.
The advantage of pile Foundation is as follows:
- Lower consumption of materials, than other foundations
- The simplicity of construction of the Foundation
- The durability of the Foundation
- Suitable for the most difficult natural conditions
- The possibility of construction in any weather
- Is used for lightweight structures, and for high-rise buildings
The disadvantage of pile Foundation is required the involvement of a crane and calculation of pile Foundation specialists (we also talk).
Calculation of pile Foundation
Calculation of pile Foundation require the work of specialists. It is not recommended to self-assess pile Foundation, the more, if in the future it will be designed to house.
The reason, that allowed calculation of pile Foundation with his own hands, is, what inexperienced people miss many important nuances. These nuances in the future adversely affect the durability of the structure, material costs for the maintenance and repair of the Foundation, and on the exterior of the Foundation.
We know, that "miser pays twice", therefore, we strongly suggest you to seek the assistance of professionals, which is like no other, accurately determine size, material, the method of installation and other elements create a pile Foundation with his own hands. Experienced architects will first examine the properties of the soil, the depth of the aquifer, tectonics and other factors, who will continue to influence the Foundation.
In addition, specialists will be able to draw the exact circuit you need the Foundation, and to knock out the estimates for all building materials for its construction.
It should be noted, the material costs for the creation of the Foundation amount to about 30% all costs for the construction of a building, therefore, the payment of specialists is not much change the overall cost of construction, for that will significantly affect its longevity!
How to create a pile Foundation with his own hands
The most popular pile Foundation to give are screw, pile with raft Foundation and pile-strip Foundation, therefore, further we will provide instruction for their construction with his own hands.
Pile-screw Foundation with his own hands
The creation of pile-screw Foundation with your hands is the fastest and most acceptable to country houses. If you are going to build garage either gazebo, pile-screw Foundation is just perfect, because. will have the following benefits:
- The mounting structure can be realized in one working day
- The minimum number of ground works
- Low material costs
- Suitable for any kind of soil
To start creating a drawing the scheme of screw pile-Foundation, where we expect the exact number of piles. Then purchased ready-made metal screw piles and if they are short, screw them into the ground with rod and a few assistants.
The recommended size of the buildings to create a pile-screw Foundation make up 4*6 meters.
The factory, mainly produced hollow screw piles, therefore, if the future building will be difficult, fill them with a concrete solution, easy – do nothing.
Once all the piles will be screwed into the ground, you need to cut them according to the level (you can use a water level) and connect them with metal channel welded to the.
On the channel it is recommended to install the precast concrete framework and further to proceed to the construction of the walls. This is a brief guide to creating a pile-screw Foundation with your hands is considered complete, as you can see, nothing complicated. Next, move on to more complex Foundation – pile with raft.
Pile strip Foundation with his own hands
This type of Foundation is more reliable and sustainable. Nothing complicated in its construction no, and now you make sure.
To begin calculate the size of the Foundation and prepare the area.
Next, using the drill pulls the required number of holes to a certain depth and make a trench for a strip Foundation, then proceed to the creation of piles.
It is recommended to create a small bed of gravel and sand (drainage layer), which carefully stamped. Next, create the waterproofing of the pile, using sheets of roofing material. Of them make molds, which will be filled piles, linking these molds fishing line and installed in the pit. In molds it is necessary to install the reinforcement of ligation of several rods, diameter 12 mm. Rebar tied with wire and make that long, whatever she spoke from the pit to 15-20 cm (for further ligation with the grillage).
When reinforcing the dressing will be created, begin to pour concrete solution, then wait 5-7 days before its fully cured.
After piles are created,move on to creating gratings. The first thing to hammer together wooden formwork, what would the width of the future Foundation was not less than 40 cm (and then 50). Later in the formwork stacked valve rods, tying them with wire to the valve, sticking out of the piles. When the steel frame will be created, proceed to the creation of strip Foundation: concrete solution, get to grips, and bring down the formwork.
To read details about the creation strip Foundation in the corresponding article, where more detailed process.
It should be noted, that process of making a pile Foundation with a grillage similar, the difference is, that raft would be at the height of 30-50 cm from the ground, not giving her a load. This option is not always satisfied gardeners, because. too much conspicuous gap between the ground and the building, although it can be nice to close plastic.
As you can see, the construction of a pile-strip Foundation also is not anything complicated. The creation of this Foundation helps to save on building materials (ready piles are more expensive), and does not require involvement of special equipment, so is ideal for suburban areas.