Brief information about the diseases of trees
As a decorative, and fruit trees are susceptible to various diseases. The most common diseases of trees are considered to be:
- The formation on the surface of the tree frost cracks
- Damage to trees the bright sun rays
- Open wounds on the tree as a result of improper cutting of branches
- Low fertility of the tree
- Mechanical damage to the surface of the tree rodents
- The formation of hollows
We will now consider, how to provide self-care of trees, which will prevent the above diseases.
Treatment of frost-shattered cracks of the tree
Frost cracks are longitudinal damage to the tree trunk, called moresomeone.
Monotony arise as a result of sharp temperature drops in the winter. The process of cracking is due to the fact, moisture, which is inside the tree, comes to the surface of the tree and kristallizuetsya, causing the crust not withstanding-voltage bursts.
If the tree is not time to cure, after a short period of time will weaken the process of holding nutrients and moisture for the tree trunk, in result the plant will quickly die.
In addition, what should deteriorate the throughput of the barrel, there is still the risk of, what's around monotony will begin to form fungal, that would lead to the death of the tree.
In the same way morozovoy will entail the appearance of hollows, which adversely affect the life of plants.
In order, to avoid this disease must adhere to the following recommendations:
- Choose a more frost-resistant varieties of trees
- Place the tree in the garden, which is less affected by frost
- In winter, wrap the tree trunks with polyethylene or unnecessary rags
If you are already faced with the problem of morozovoy, it is necessary to begin treatment of wood, to do this, use the following method:
Treated wood is necessary only in the spring, the process can take more than one season. The first thing removed from the trunk of the tree dead parts of bark, then the so-called wound-wood, wipe with copper sulfate (5% solution) and gloss over garden grease.
In that case, if morozovoy is large and depth, you need to pull wire, which puts wooden struts.
Treatment of hollows in the tree
A hollow tree is formed as a result of active actions of morozovoy. In order, to seal the hollow, you must use the following mini-instructions:
- Removed from the inner part of the hollow of rotten wood and all kinds of garbage.
- Ventilated hollow
- Disinfect the remaining healthy wood inside the cavities with iron sulphate
- Fill the hollow. To do this, put gravel or broken bricks and fill the inside with cement-sand mortar
- Banded trunk with burlap
Treatment damage to the bark of a tree
Tree bark is an indicator of his health. It is for the crust to determine if a tree is sick with a fungal or other diseases.
Most commonly the bark of the tree damage the following factors:
- Weather conditions (effects of the heat and frost)
- The mechanical action of rodents and insects-bark beetles
- Damage by viruses
In order to avoid these adverse effects, it is necessary to implement measures to protect the bark, the most popular of which is the whitewashing of trees.
Whitewashing of trees is necessary to carry out the early spring (March, April) or late fall (at temperatures up to 3 degrees above zero). Prevention of whitewashing a tree trunk protects the bark from fungal diseases, harm insects and mites, damage by frost and sunlight, etc.
Prerequisite whitewashing of trees is to conduct it in dry weather. For starters, produce the so-called "exfoliating tree": inspect the bark and branches of trees on the presence of lichens and moss, gently remove them, also remove the dead bark. After that gloss over the cracks in the tree garden lubricant and wait, until it dries.
Whitewash tree made with a brush or spray, all at your discretion. Whitewash can be bought in a specialty store, then just dilute it with water according to the instructions, or you can do it yourself.
To create the whitewash we need:
- A bucket of clean water (10 liters)
- 2 kg of slaked lime or 1 kg quicklime
- 0,2 kg of joiner's glue
- 0,5 kg of copper sulphate
- 1 shovel cow manure (optional)
Mix these components consistency, reminiscent of sour cream.
After, as the solution is ready, proceed to whitewash wood. This applied to the trunk of the plant a solution in a thin layer.
In addition, the whitewash of the wood will protect the plant from diseases, the event also will give a General view of the plant light decorative, which clearly fit into the garden country style.
Feeding trees with fertilizer
One of the most important actions to take care of the tree, consider fertilizing plants. Fertilizer trees, organic and mineral fertilizers need to be implemented in order, that would increase the fertility of the tree and prepare it for future crops.
Fertilizing trees is early spring and late autumn.
In the first case the event should only be performed for effective and more rapid development of fruits. Autumn fertilizing is in order, to prepare the tree for winter.
You should pay attention to, the tree was not allowed to feed in the first year of its growth, recommended feeding on the second or third year.
In order, that would be to choose the right fertilizer, you must consider the climate of the territory, grade and age of the tree, and soil composition of the site. Before, how to buy fertilizer, it is recommended to conduct soil analysis in the laboratory – this service is not expensive.
As for mineral supplements, the most common and useful tree is considered potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus.
Fertilize the tree with nitrogen is necessary, if you notice the following adverse factors:
- Early leaf fall
- The leaves are changing color
- Fruits are not as large, as they were before
- Shoots grow slowly
You should pay attention to, what tree fertilizer nitrogen must be implemented in the spring, when the plant has seen rapid growth in. In any case, do not use nitrogen fertilizer in the fall, because. they help to reduce hardiness of the tree, resulting in formation of monotony.
Fertilizer, consisting of phosphorus, accelerate growth of trees, causing the fruit ripen faster, moreover, phosphorus has a positive effect on their size and taste.
Use of phosphorus fertilizer in the spring, and in the autumn.
The tree needs phosphorus, if the fruits begin to drop prematurely, leaves turn a purple color and are smaller.
Potash fertilizers contribute to the increase of frost- and drought resistance of the tree. To understand, the tree needs more fertilizer potassium, you watching the leaves (they will become wrinkled with reddish tint) and trying sorely fruit (it will lose its flavor and spoil faster when stored).
In addition to mineral fertilizers, there are organic: compost and manure.
Compost fertilizer is made personally, using garden shredder, we were talking about earlier. Manure also can be use, if you have agriculture.
Fertilizing trees with organic fertilizers is permitted no more than, than 1 times 2 year, the amount of mineral fertilizers should be cut in 2 times.
You should pay attention to, that exceed normal dosages of organic fertilizers is not allowed, because. you can burn the plant, with the result that there is a risk, it will die.
Organic fertilization is of two types: foliar and root. In the first case, the fertilizer is diluted in water and applied to the wood surface. Root feeding is done by incorporating the fertiliser in moist soil above the root system.
In addition to feeding you must carry out measures for the care of the tree, as: weeding, aeration and watering.
Another type of tree care – rodent control, which cause mechanical damage to the tree trunk and roots, resulting in drying of the tree and reduce its immunity to various diseases.
There 3 the main method of combating insects and rodents, harmful to the tree: biological, chemical and mechanical.
The first method is based on the fact, next to the trees constructed feeders for the birds, bringing feathered friends are next to a place of safety and destroy rodents and harmful insects.
In the chemical method of protection of wood using special chemicals, which are applied on wood surface. This method is the most dangerous and unfavorable for tree, so it is used in extreme cases.
Mechanical method of rodent control involves the following activities:
- Catch rodents manually
- Circumcision damaged areas
- Mulching and digging soil around the trunk
- Winter carefully vtaptyvaetsya the snow around the tree trunk
- Wrapping the tree trunk with rags
To protect the wood from sunlight and other types of damage
In order, to carry out this type of tree care with their hands, need to build sheds, that will cover the plant from heat in the summer. Just don't forget about watering trees, you want to exercise either early in the morning, or closer to the evening. Day to water the plants is not recommended, because. droplets of water, which will remain on the surface of the wood, will serve as a natural magnifying glasses. Getting on these drops, sun rays will burn the surface of the leaves of the tree.
Strong gusts of wind contribute, young trees can break. What would it prevent, it is necessary to tie the tree trunk to more lasting supports, driven by a.
The same care should be taken, that would be during sawing of branches, the bark didn't slip from healthy parts of the tree. For this, before you cut the branch, below is required to make the inscription crust.
Here we have provided the most simple and effective methods of treatment of diseases of the tree, as well as information about the proper care of the tree. We also recommend you to read the article, what trees you need to choose for your own garden!