General information about the plant
Cute flowers, similar to chamomile, belong to the Asteraceae family. Most species grow in South Africa and on the island of Madagascar, in tropical Asia. Color can be almost any: gardens and window sills decorated with orange, yellow, pink, red and white flowers. Not only is blue Gerber. The most famous red gerbera varieties "Robin", "Saskia", "Rudy Amsterdam". Perennial is characterized by basal leaves, height beauties small, on average 30 cm, individual specimens can reach half a meter. Flower diameter – 12-15 cm, structure – Terry, semi-double, simple.
The genus gerbera was named in honor of physician and botanist f. Gerbera, and was first described in the first half of the eighteenth century, another botanist, I. Gronovius. There is another view about the origin of the name: from the Latin "herba" – "grass". In England, these pretty flowers are called daisies trenchanskie.
In Russia gerbera appeared quite late, by the end of the eighteenth century. They did not cause much enthusiasm, growers and consumers felt Daisy too bright and annoying. There is another legend, related gerberoy: it turned the beautiful nymph, which wished to avoid too close attention of fans. Bouquet with gerberas give the girls, when you want to confess your love, it is also presented to the distinguished people, to which the giver has a genuine appreciation, the rapture, thanks.
The plant blooms in the spring and late summer, the time depends on varietal facilities, and pleasing to the eye until November. Gerbera loves the sun, grows in scattered light. Unpretentious flower, rapidly evolving, experienced growers recommend not to cut, and to break it out of the slot: even a small part of the remaining stems can cause rot and death of plants.
Planting and care
During the period of growth gerberas shall be provided with adequate irrigation, in time of peace it is better to reduce: flower does not like how a surplus of moisture, and drying of the soil. In the process of hydration water should not fall on the leaves and drain in the socket – it can be fraught with rot. The culture needs feeding every two weeks with mineral fertilizers. With the onset of autumn the plants are dug, transplanted into containers of large size. The optimal composition of the soil – a mixture of leaf soil and peat, two parts, one part sand. Require the construction of good drainage, it would suit expanded clay. The root collar should be above the ground.
Reproduction of plants
Garden gerbera is propagated by dividing the Bush and seeds, the most simple and popular among gardeners ways.
The division of the Bush
In April or may two or three years the bushes are divided into several parts, leaving each with two to three young leaf. The roots trimmed to 10 cm. The outlet is located above the earth's surface half an inch: this approach will promote good flowering and growth.
Packing of planting material can be purchased in specialized stores. When you purchase should pay attention to the date of production: normal germination Gerber stays for a relatively short time: seven or eight months.
Seeds are sown in a light soil mix from January to March, depth of seal – 2-3 mm. Optimum temperature – not below +18 degrees. For growing suitable light mixture of leaf compost, sand, peat, perlite. You can use boxes for mini-greenhouses. The first seedlings should appear in one to two weeks. After the four-five leaves, the seedlings are planted in pots. The first flowering occurs ten months after planting. Plants, grown from seed, you do not have many parent properties.
Species and varieties of gerberas
The breeders brought about thousands of varieties, they vary in size and shape. There are plain and variegated flowers, the differences may be in coloration of the core classical yellow in some varieties replaced by black. This gives the garden flowers of a very unusual kind.
The types of gerbera botany were divided into six groups, they are signs of decorative forms themselves inflorescences:
- scolapasta, melkotsvetkovye, the diameter of the inflorescence from 8 to 9 cm;
- scolapasta, grandiflora, inflorescences more, diameter – 13 cm;
- sredneimportnye, grandiflora, inflorescence up to 14 cm;
- shirokolistnyj, grandiflora, to 15 cm in diameter;
- semi-double and double, scolapasta, diameter of inflorescences – up to 11 cm;
- semi-double and double, shirokolistnyj, length of peduncle up to 70 cm, diameter of inflorescences – from 11 to 15 cm.
For the cultivation of gerbera daisies at home is best suited sort of "Festival", which has a variety of color. Short stems and large flowers look good on the window sills, light, warm, ventilated.
Cut cultivated varieties:
- "Alkor" and "Aldebaran", with narrow leaves, flower diameter up to 10 cm. The height of the stem up to half a meter;
- other "space" class, such as "Jupiter", VEGA, "Mehar", "ALGOL" also have narrow petals, inflorescence larger, to 13 cm, stem length up to 70 cm;
- the sort of "Mars" is decorated with medium petals with large flowers, height – 65 cm.
In the garden the most popular the following crops:
Gerbera Wright. Native to South Africa. Bright flowers grow best in a warm climate or in a greenhouse. Need good ventilation and timely feeding.
Zelenolistnyh gerbera. Original appearance, from which all the other. Inflorescence narrow-leaved, color – pale pink.
Gerbera Jameson. The height of the stem reaches 60 cm, leaves – length 15 cm, pubescent. Blooms from late August to November, flowers – orange, red, yellow, white with yellow center. The plant prefers fresh air, spraying. In soil you can't add fresh compost. Optimum growth temperature up to 20 degrees.
The most popular varieties:
- "Golden Serena", flower diameter up to 12 cm;
- "Harley" – medium flowers, diameter – 7 cm;
- "Brigadier red" is a cultivar with double flowers.
Gerbera Abyssinian. Plant height – up to 45 cm, baskets small, single, have a white color with a reddish tint.
Gerbera-mini. Name – speaking, flowers – small, the stem is also low – to 30 cm. Colours varied: from yellow to bright red. Plants have good clean air and perfectly combined with other flower crops, creating unique compositions.
Diseases and pests
The plant is quite susceptible to disease. To prevent the destruction of flower soil treated with special drugs. The most common attack – decay the root of the neck, the causative agent is a fungus, which can get into a culture with waterlogged soil. For the prevention of disease is necessary to observe the correct mode of irrigation, to improve drainage. Gray mold is destroyed with chemical compounds, processing plant should be cautious, to avoid getting the solution on the flowers.
In the heat of summer can affect gerbera powdery mildew. Control measures – the use of sulfur-containing drugs, fungicides. The death of the plant may cause spider mite, aphids and thrips. Culture yellow and fade. Save gerbera insecticides.
In the cold period the plant needs shelter, the most suitable material for this purpose are dry leaves or straw. In harsh climatic zones of gerbera grown as the annual, or dug deep in the fall with a soil-ball and landed in the volume pot, which contains till spring. The storage room should be cool, well ventilated and lit, temperature seven or eight degrees Celsius.
In compliance with all agro-technical rules luxury flower-the camomile will delight the owner of the garden and his guests for a long period. The garden will be filled with bright colors, uplifting.