- The similarity of fungi and animals
- The structure of the hat of the mushroom, lifestyle and reproduction
- Of hyphae – filaments mushrooms build your body
- Groups and types the most frequently encountered fungi
- Mushrooms saprotrophic – medics woods
- Mushrooms – parasites
- Symbiotropin fungi or mycorrhizal
- List of edible mushrooms
- White mushroom (Borovik)
- Boletus (red mushroom)
- The results
In nature, perhaps, there are not living organisms, that would be so diverse, sometimes strange, would have such unusual features, like mushrooms. No wonder in 18 century, a prominent French botanist Vayan called mushrooms of the devil, leading eminent scientists in embarrassment, a young nerd is in despair. Do, a lot of mushrooms it seems at first glance puzzling: their sudden appearance and disappearance, education "witch rings", the attachment of fungi to certain tree species and t. d. There are years, when, I think, only to be fungi but they are not in sight, and Vice versa: weather conditions seems to be unsuitable for fungi, and their visible-invisible.
The similarity of fungi and animals
Word, even the fact, scientists are still arguing about that, to what Kingdom, to the vegetable or to the animal — include the mushrooms, shows great originality in this world. What is the originality? A number of characteristics distinguishes fungi from plants, which for years they ranked as. The main difference is, fungi do not contain chlorophyll — green pigment, which plants in the light to create carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. Devoid of chlorophyll, the mushrooms themselves create organic substances can't, why settle everywhere, where can I get the carbs ready. That explains the wide distribution of fungi: they are found in sugary liquids, in fresh and sea water, food, Wallpaper, wooden walls and floors, in the cellars and basements. A great many fungi live in the soil, eats various animal and plant residues. Numerous species live on live plants, on humans and animals. Mushrooms ruining expensive equipment, live in the fuel tanks of the aircraft, even in concentrated acid, in other words, they are truly ubiquitous, because it is difficult to name the substrate, where there would be mushrooms. The ability of fungi to live off of any ready supply of substrate, their heterotrofos (omnivorous) makes fungal metabolism similar to animal; in the cells of fungi is not starch, which always have plants, but there is a glycogen, characteristic of all representatives of the animal world. Of course, that with such a wide distribution in nature, the mushrooms themselves are extremely diverse. Below, in the photo, presents the structure of the cells of the fungus, everything in our World in the image and likeness.
Today we know more than 100 thousand of different kinds of mushrooms: yeast is a fungi; mold also fungi; white patches (thrush) mouth babies, painful vesicles on the skin of the feet — fungi; spots on leaves, ulcers on the trunks and mushrooms. And, of course, it, what appears before our mind's eye, when it comes to mushrooms, heroes-mushrooms and krasnoholovets, elegant russulas, fragrant mushrooms, mushrooms, handsome fly agaric is mushrooms too.
The structure of the hat of the mushroom, lifestyle and reproduction
But before you learn how to accurately recognize edible mushrooms, to distinguish them from the poisonous, inedible and suspicious, talk a little bit about the structure of the mushroom and lifestyle. This will help you to focus on the mushroom trails, to understand, where, when and what types of mushrooms should look for, how to collect mushrooms — word, armed with knowledge, necessary for the reasonable use of the rich mushroom forests.
Drawing of the structure of the mushroom is showing us that, what we call usually a mushroom, is not the whole mushroom, but only its fruiting body. The majority of edible mushrooms is a cap on legs; others they look like bushes, corals, funnel, have an egg, pear-shaped or spherical form. There is a mushroom or a star gasgoigne, resembling shelves, pellet, detailed fan. The fruit body is designed for reproduction of the mushroom body: them on the surface of special cells (basidiocarp basidiomycetes have) or inside (the bags, or ASKI, from Ascomycetes) disputes — mushroom "seeds". As disputes, and spore-bearing cells are microscopically small, their sizes measured in microns — thousandths of a millimeter. Therefore, they can be seen only with a powerful magnifying glass or microscope, with the increase in the tens and even hundreds of times. To the naked eye the spores are only visible in the mass, in the form of a spore powder. To see it, have a leg high on the LPS or tubes — cut, and a hat to put on white paper and cover cap. After a few hours the spores separated from the basidiocarp and rest on paper, where it will become visible as white or colored powder. The color of it is an important symptom, by which to judge the systematic position of the fungus.
Of hyphae – filaments mushrooms build your body
Folded fruiting body of a more or less dense plexus of fungal filaments — hyphae, the thickness of which is measured by the micron. Hyphae form the main body of the fungus — mycelium (mycelium). To see the mycelium, one must carefully rake the layer of forest litter or soil near the feet — then it becomes noticeable subtle, gentle, most often whitish lace — this is the mycelium. It supersedes the roots, stems, leaves, available to higher plants; it performs all the important functions of a living mushroom — food, resettlement, growth and reproduction. Unlike the fruiting bodies of the mycelium is not diversity. He's not usually brightly colored: whitish, brownish or yellowish, its hyphae interwoven in undefined order. Sometimes they are woven into the strands, cords, in a fluffy cotton-like clusters of fleshy or pellet. From basidiomycetes mycelium is perennial. Hyphae grow tops; therefore, mycelium grows radially from the center. Fruiting bodies appear mainly in the young, the stronger parts of the mycelium and often form a more or less regular circle (ring) — the circle, and now for a hundred- Rinke called "devilish", or "magic" circle. The mycelium feeds on the entire surface of GIF, sucking of substrate moisture with dissolved nutrients. Multiply pileate mushrooms, pieces of mycelium or spores. Once on the desired substrate, Mature spores germinate; occurs mycelium, which develops and quickly permeates the soil in all directions.
At the meeting place of the GIF, grown from different the dispute, fastened a seal — Bud fruiting bodies. The mycelium is intensively supplies it with nutrient solutions, and the fungus is growing literally by leaps and bounds. He soon rises above the ground and unfolds in all its glory.
Groups and types the most frequently encountered fungi
The life of a fruit body is dependent on the number of generations spore-bearing cells: for example, the most gradojevic mushroom — dung there is only one generation of the basidiocarp. Disputes as soon as they are ripe — fruit bodies die, often blurring drops of inky black liquid. They exist only for a few hours, the biggest— 1-2 days. The boletus, aspen produces several generations of the basidiocarp — the fruiting bodies of them there are 7-14 days; the mushroom development from Bud to full disclosure of the cap — about 25-30 days. Many fruit bodies of tinder years. In order, to normally exist, to develop, to bear fruit, the mycelium needs a favourable combination of several factors. The main moisture, reasonable, no extreme, temperature and, of course, the presence of the feed substrate. Associated to it the mushrooms are divided into several groups.
Mushrooms saprotrophic – medics woods
Saprotrophic remove organic matter from all kinds of residues from fallen needles, foliage, pieces of wood, stumps, fallen trees, straw, twigs, dead fleshy fruiting bodies of fungi, manure, coal. The importance of this group of fungi cannot be overemphasized: they serve as active nurses in the nature, along with bacteria, clean forests and other plant communities from annual litter and mortality, returning organic matter to the soil as, available for absorption by higher plants, t. e. create soil fertility. Wild mushrooms nurses is Govorushko, collybia, mizani, signiwcance and other types of.
Mushrooms – parasites
Many fungi are parasitic way of life. Settling on the plants, animals and man, mushrooms-parasites (biotrophy) cause disease, sometimes very heavy. In plants, for example, this is smut and rust, all kinds of spotting, the twisting of leaves, fruit rot, stems or trunks. Fungal lesions have markedly reduced the viability of the plant, ruining the crop. Higher fungi-parasites are concentrated mainly in the family trudovikov: it destroyers live wood, the pathogens of rot of wood. There are parasitic fungi and among hat, but they are few: on old trees live some cheshuichatoe, oyster mushrooms; the fungus, small fungus astreopora, and logodaedaly is one of the xerocomus.
Example of, like fungus can become a parasite, is Armillaria autumn. He usually settles clearings, stumps and their roots, other remnants of wood and, converting them, brings more benefit, what's the harm. But it happens, that Armillaria attacks on live trees, especially the young, and then he is the cause of death of forest plantings. Armillaria can infect other plants, distant from the wood, for example potatoes.
Found it by accident, during the Patriotic war in besieged Leningrad. Fleeing from hunger, Leningrad planted gardens, planted potatoes, different vegetables. On one such garden, the tubers were completely struck with an unknown disease, rot, IOC. They were taken to the Botanical Institute for examination. Scientists have studied them; to his surprise, found, that fills the tubers unclear wet weight — not that other, as the mycelium of Armillaria. This delicious and prolific mushroom is capable of hitting approximately 200 types of plants, first of all wood — oak, spruce, birch, aspen, pine, Apple, plum, and also lilac, the vine and many others.
Symbiotropin fungi or mycorrhizal
A large group of mycorrhizal, or Symbiotropin, mushrooms, adapted to receive organic matter from cohabitation with trees and shrubs. Mycelium their lives always close to her desired plants, is concentrated around its roots. At the meeting in the ground with small sucking roots the mycelium is twisting around them, forming on the surface of the case consists of hyphae; often it is embedded in the root and goes through the intercellular spaces. This phenomenon is called "grebocin" (mycorrhiza). It is very important for both partners: the fungus gets from the roots carbohydrates, the plant from the mycelium — water with dissolved mineral substances. Therefore, mycorrhizal fungi improve water and mineral nutrition of their symbionts. Mycorrhizae are especially important for young, still immature woody seedlings, planted on poor, dry sandy soil.
In turn, the mycorrhizal fungus in the absence of their plants-roommate fruiting bodies do not form, though is kept alive. Mycorrhizal fungi — it's all siroi-Cowie, tubular, a fly agaric, blewits, pautinki. By, how plentifully fructify mycorrhizal fungi, the richness of their species composition can be judged on the welfare of forest communities: in a healthy, intact forest symbiotrophic fungi are many and they are good fruit, as there is established and stored relationship between them and higher vegetation. Trampled, cluttered, unkempt forest, mikoriza-less adjustable, but there to develop successfully pathogenic fungi, amazing trees.
List of edible mushrooms
White mushroom (Borovik)
This fungus is one of the best and most valuable. It in any preparation does not change its color and aroma and is a high quality product, with and in fresh, and dried, and salt, Yves pickled taste great. It is especially useful for mushroom soups and sauces.
The white mushroom has a dense white flesh, not changing colors when the turn. Hat brown (red-brown) the color treloggen and pale yellowish young. The lower, spongy surface of a Mature mushroom with a greenish-yellow, the young — white. Stump (the spine) white fungus thick, dense, as if swollen at the base.
Boletus (red mushroom)
The flesh of boletus with a broken blue. The cap of Mature mushroom brown – red, young – bright red, red-orange, the lower spongy portion of the cap from a Mature mushroom off-white, the young —white. The spine is white with dark scales.
Aspen by heat treatment and drying blacken. Use these mushrooms for frying, extinguishing, salting and marinating. For preparation of mushroom soups they are unsuitable, so they make dark broth.
The flesh of boletus and white with a broken color does not change. Hat brown, the lower, spongy surface grayish-white. The old mushroom large, flabby, soft hat. White, covered with blackish scales, the stump of boletus thin at the attachment to the cap and thicker at the base.
Boletus fried, stew and pickled. The heat treatment and drying mushrooms darken much. To make soups boletus are not used.
Pileus brownish-red or brownish-yellow. The edges of the cap of the young oiler is connected by a film about sport. In adults mushrooms on the spine at the point of attachment of the breakaway cap ring remains. The bottom of the cap is spongy, yellowish (but not red) color. Spine yellow. On the turn the flesh of the fungus, the color does not change. Boletus is used for frying and stewing, and also for pickling and salting. Before thermal processing, it is recommended to remove the upper skin of the cap.
Hat young mushroom convex, old funnel. The cap and root are the same orange-red color. Ginger refers to the lamellar mushrooms, where the bottom of the cap consists of small plates, radiating to the edges. Color plates from Ryzhikov same, as the color of the outer surface of the cap. Spine adult mushroom hollow. Mushrooms are used for salting; pickled mushrooms are very tasty.
This agaric has a large concave hat white, greenish-white or yellowish-white. The white flesh of the fungus if the fracture secretes a bitter milky juice. Mushrooms are used mainly for pickling.
Hat tint of pale yellow-brown or light yellow color. Depending on the age of the mushroom cap changes shape: she first convex, and then becomes more flat with a slight bulge in the middle. On the hat small dark scales. The bottom of the cap plate, white or yellowish young and dark-brown at the old mushroom. Spine fine with the rest of the film in the form of a whitish ring.
Mushrooms fried. Delicious small the caps of these mushrooms in salted or pickled.
Hats come in several different colors and shades. There are fungi with pinkish-red, yellow, green, grey hats. The bottom of the cap plate white. The flesh is white and very fragile. The spine of the mushroom ring does not have. Russula fried and salted.
Hats and roots chanterelles have the same yellow-orange color, resembling the color of an egg yolk. Form of the cap of the young mushroom is convex, Mature — funnel. The bottom of the cap plate.
Chanterelles fry, salted and marinated. Note, in contrast to other fungi, these mushrooms never worm-eaten.
This fungus appears in early spring, much earlier than other fungi. Morel — representative of the Ascomycetes, usually has a rounded, ovate or conical shape and a mesh surface. The outer skin its yellowish-brown, the flesh of the shrimp white, juicy. Morels fried.
These mushrooms are the delicacy thanks to a very pleasant and distinctive aroma. Truffles grow underground at a depth of 10-20 cm. Looking for them a strong specific smell of specially trained dogs. For the best, the most valuable varieties of truffles include the black truffle is a very large mushroom, similar in appearance to a dark tuber, covered with warts. The inside of the tuber is white or yellowish-white flesh of young mushrooms, and yellowish-brown — old.
The black truffle is one of the best, gourmet seasonings to dishes and cuts of meat, game, birds. It adds also in some of the sauces. Unlike all other fresh mushrooms, which are extremely unstable in storage and should be used on the day of receipt, the truffle is well kept throughout the month, and in the sand it retains the freshness and goodness for two months.
Much has the worst taste white truffle. In appearance and coloration, and white truffle resembles a potato. Young specimens of these mushrooms have a light yellow surface, the old chestnut-brown. Some varieties of white truffles have a mild flavor of garlic, so that they go well with many meat dishes.
These mushrooms also have the great taste and subtle • scent. They are used in cooking for soups, sauces and in the manufacture of various dishes of fish, meat, poultry and game. In some varieties of sauces only add decoction of mushrooms, what happens sometimes is sufficient, in order to make this culinary product a very pleasant aroma and delicate taste.
Note, the mushrooms are well grown and in vitro — in special rooms (champignones). The following describes wild mushrooms. The meadow mushroom has a fleshy cap round shape, covered with silky or small skin whitish. The inner surface of the cap consists of small plates of pinkish color, which, as the ripening of the mushroom darken and old specimens become blackish-red. You need to keep in mind, the mushrooms with dark plates of food is not recommended. Stump mushroom young mushrooms white, dense, coupled with a hat. The Mature mushroom cap is separated and remains on the stump ring. In breaking the mushroom flesh quickly turns red. Champignon field in appearance is almost indistinguishable from the meadow, in addition to the hemp, which is slightly longer. Unlike meadow mushroom field with a broken color does not change.
These are, in the most General terms, features the life and values of mushrooms. Even this brief excursion into the science to explain it, what at first seems to be strange: the sudden appearance and disappearance of mushrooms, their explicit relationship with certain species of trees. It becomes clear, why, in other cases, the fruit body is poorly developed or does not grow, if, how often claim, "only looked at it": a mushroom is really only looked, and next pulled out "root" of the larger fruiting body and ripped, damaged mycelium, who had and other instances, including the, on, which "only looked". Clear, why in the dry summer mushrooms you can find at the edge of the forest stream, and during the flood rains mushrooms rescued from the flood on the stumps. Now, armed with the necessary mycological knowledge, the basics of the science of mushrooms, we can go on a fascinating forest journeys. Here, mushroom trails, which, fortunately, many more in our forest edge, we have to get acquainted with the mysterious, unique, tacitly invoking a world of mushrooms.